In Halbig v. Burwell, a three-judge panel from the D.C. Circuit Court struck down the IRS’ rule that authorizes subsidies in all states, including those with FFEs. The court concluded that the ACA “unambiguously restricts” the subsidies to insurance purchased on Exchanges established by the states. Thus, the court said that subsidies are only available to individuals who obtain insurance through state-based Exchanges.
In King v. Burwell, the 4th Circuit Court ruled that the text of the ACA is ambiguous and subject to multiple interpretations. The court upheld the IRS’ rule that authorizes subsidies in all states, including those with FFEs, as a permissible exercise of the agency’s discretion. Thus, the court said that the subsidies are available to individuals who obtain insurance through either state-based Exchanges or through FFEs.
The Obama administration disagrees with the D.C. Circuit Court’s ruling and intends to seek further review of the decision. It is anticipated that the Justice Department will ask the entire 11-person D.C. appeals court to review the decision. In the meantime, a Justice Department spokesperson has stated that the subsidies will continue to remain available.
On July 22, 2014, two federal appeals courts—the District of Columbia Circuit Court and the 4th U.S. Circuit Court—issued inconsistent rulings on the availability of subsidies in states with FFEs.
In Halbig v. Burwell, the D.C. Circuit Court held that the IRS rule authorizing subsidies in states with FFEs is invalid. In a 2-1 opinion, the court ruled that the text of the ACA clearly restricts the subsidies to individuals in states that established their own Exchanges.
In King v. Burwell, the 4th Circuit Court unanimously upheld the availability of the ACA’s subsidies in states with their own Exchanges and in states with FFEs.